FIELD MANUAL: ETRUSCAN CHRONOLOGY

 

VILLANOVAN PHASE : 900 - 700 B.C.

This period was characterized by cremation burials, warrior culture, bronze and iron armor, and weapons, first figural representations (in a geometric style), exploitation of local mineral resources, and contact with Greeks and Phoenicians (750-700 BC).

ORIENTALIZING PERIOD: 700 - 600 B.C.

Contact continued with Phoenicians, Near East, and Greek cultures resulting in an eastern or "Orientalizing" style of figural art. First Etruscan inscriptions (700-650 BC) as Etruscans borrow alphabetic writing from the Greeks and Phoenicians. Increased wealth resulted in splendid, "Princely" tomb groups that include large amounts of gold, silver, ivory, and other luxury items.

ARCHAIC PERIOD: 600 - 480 B.C.

There was a strong influence from the Greek world on Etruscan art of the southern and costal regions. Large amounts of Greek pottery appear in Etruscan tombs. The first painted tombs at Tarquinia and the Rock-cut tombs of Cerveteri appear. Etruscan bronze production reaches new technical heights. The Etruscans expand north of the Arno and trading contacts are established throughout the Mediterranean. Etruscan kings are expelled from Rome (509/508 BC).

CLASSICAL PERIOD: 480 - 300 B.C.

This was the beginning of Etruscan decline, politically but not artistically. Etruscans were defeated by the Greeks at the naval battle of Cumae (474 BC). The Etruscans were expelled from Campania (ca, 420 BC). Veii captured by Romans (396 BC).

ROMAN-ETRUSCAN: 300 -100 B.C.

This period was equivalent of the Hellenistic period in eastern Mediterranean. The conquest and assimilation of Etruscan city-states by the Romans occurred. Period of late Etruscan painting at Tarquinia: new images of the afterlife.

Introduction and Course Requirements

Introduction to Field Work Techniques

Etruscan Chronology

Field School Graduate Readings