FIELD MANUAL: ETRUSCAN
VILLANOVAN PHASE : 900 - 700 B.C.
This period was characterized by cremation
burials, warrior culture, bronze and iron armor, and weapons,
first figural representations (in a geometric style), exploitation
of local mineral resources, and contact with Greeks and Phoenicians
ORIENTALIZING PERIOD: 700 - 600 B.C.
Contact continued with Phoenicians, Near
East, and Greek cultures resulting in an eastern or "Orientalizing"
style of figural art. First Etruscan inscriptions (700-650 BC)
as Etruscans borrow alphabetic writing from the Greeks and Phoenicians.
Increased wealth resulted in splendid, "Princely" tomb
groups that include large amounts of gold, silver, ivory, and
other luxury items.
ARCHAIC PERIOD: 600 - 480 B.C.
There was a strong influence from the
Greek world on Etruscan art of the southern and costal regions.
Large amounts of Greek pottery appear in Etruscan tombs. The
first painted tombs at Tarquinia and the Rock-cut tombs of Cerveteri
appear. Etruscan bronze production reaches new technical heights.
The Etruscans expand north of the Arno and trading contacts are
established throughout the Mediterranean. Etruscan kings are
expelled from Rome (509/508 BC).
CLASSICAL PERIOD: 480 - 300 B.C.
This was the beginning of Etruscan decline,
politically but not artistically. Etruscans were defeated by
the Greeks at the naval battle of Cumae (474 BC). The Etruscans
were expelled from Campania (ca, 420 BC). Veii captured by Romans
ROMAN-ETRUSCAN: 300 -100 B.C.
This period was equivalent of the Hellenistic
period in eastern Mediterranean. The conquest and assimilation
of Etruscan city-states by the Romans occurred. Period of late
Etruscan painting at Tarquinia: new images of the afterlife.
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